7 Kings of Rome

753 B.C. - Romulus
715 B.C. - Numa Pompilius
673 B.C. - Tullus Hostilius
642 B.C. - Ancus Martius
616 B.C. - Tarquinius Priscus
578 B.C. - Servius Tullius
534 B.C. - Tarquinius Superbus
202 B.C. - Scipio defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama
146 B.C. - Third Punic War - Carthage destroyed

Statue of Augustus - Rome - Via dei Fori Imperiali

Julio-Claudian Dynasty and Flavian Dynasty

45 B.C. Julius Caesar declares himself Dictator of Rome.

44 B.C. Julius Caesar is assassinated.

17 B.C. Octavian becomes Caesar Augustus - First Emperor of Rome.

13 A.D. Roman Empire reaches the Danube.

14 A.D. Augustus dies. Tiberius becomes emperor.

33 Jesus is crucified.

37 Tiberius dies. Caligula becomes emperor.

41 Caligula assassinated. Claudius becomes emperor.

43 Claudius invades Britain.

50 Londonium becomes the capital of Roman province Britannia.

54 Claudius dies. Nero becomes emperor.

60 Britannia - Romans quell the revolt led by Celtic Queen Boudicca.

64 Nero sets city of Rome on fire and blames Christians.

68 Nero commits suicide.

68-69 Flavian Dynasty Begins.
Year of the 4 Emperors: Galba, Otto, Vitallius and Vespasian becomes emperor.

69 Emperor Vespasian - beginning of the Flavian Dynasty

70 Titus,(son of Vespasian), destroys Jerusalem.

79 Vesuvius erupts. Destroys Pompeii and Herculaneum.

79 Colosseum completed.

Five Good Emperors - Antonine Dynasty - 96-180

96 - 180 Five Good Emperors

1) Nerva
2) Trajan
3) Hadrian
4) Antonius Pius
5) Marcus Aurelius

96 Nerva becomes emperor.

98 Trajan becomes first emperor not born in Italy. He was born in Hispania.

100 Christian gospels completed (New Testament).

112 Rome - Trajan's Column is erected and Forum is completed.

117 Hadrian becomes emperor.

120 Rome - Hadrian begins construction of Pantheon.

122 Britannia - Northern England - Hadrian's Wall built.

Pantheon - Rome - 125 A.D.

138 Antonius Pius becomes emperor.

161 Marcus Aurelius becomes emperor

164 Plague strikes the Empire

180 Marcus Aurelius dies. Commodus becomes emperor

192 Commodus is murdered.

Statue of Marcus Aurelius - Rome - Piazza del Campidoglio

Severans and Soldier Emperors 200 - 217

193 Septimius Severus the African Emperor begins new dynasty.

216 Baths of Caracalla

217 Emperor Caracalla is murdered.

Arch of Septimius Severus


Barbarian Invasions of Western Europe

284 Diocletian becomes Emperor.

300 Franks cross the Rhine into Gaul

306 Constantine the Great becomes Emperor.

313 Constantine becomes first Christian Emperor.

330 Constantinople becomes the new center of the Roman Empire.

354 Northern Frontier of Roman Empire collapses.

375 Goths cross the Danube under protection of Emperor Valens.

378 Battle of Adrianople - Goths defeat Emperor Valens army.

395 Emperor Theodosius divides Roman Empire. Constantinople becomes the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
400 Huns drive Germanic Barbarians into Southern Europe.

402 Ravenna, Italy - becomes new capital of Western Roman Empire.

408 Visigoths - led by Alaric - surround city of Rome and block all food supplies for two years.

409 Vandals cross the Rhine and settle in Hispania (Spain and Portugal). Western Roman Emperor Honorius teams up with Visigoths

410 Visigoths, led by Alaric, storm city of Rome - Sack of Rome - Fall of Western Roman Empire

410 Romans leave Britain.

420 Vandals - led by Geiseric - Southern Spain - become shipbuilders and discover sea power.

427 Vandals - led by Geiseric - conquer North Africa.

428 Ravenna, Italy - Emperor Valentinian III and his mother Placidia and General Aetius.

429 Vandals cross Straight of Gibraltar and take control of North Africa. Largest seagoing movement of Barbarians, more than 80,000 Vandals.

436 Picts (from Scotland) invade the Britons. Britons ask Saxons for help.

439 Vandals led by Geiseric and his son Huneric capture Carthage (now in Tunisia), 3rd most important city of the Roman Empire.

440 Franks settle in Toxandria (Netherlands and Belgium)

442 Emperor Valentinian III recognizes the country of Vandalia (North Africa).
443 Attila becomes leader of the Huns.

447 Greece - Attila has reached the walls of the Eastern Roman Empire. Romans must stop fighting the Vandals and face Attila.

448 Most of Eastern Europe is seized by the Huns. Center of Hun Empire is in Hungary.

450 Anglo-Saxons invade Southern Britain and drive Celts west.

450 Huns join with Geppids and Ostrogoths and attack Gaul. Attila is labeled "The Scourge of God."

446 Merovich becomes leader of the Franks. Merovingian Dynasty Begins.

451 Catalaunian Plains near Orleans. Battle of Chalons, Gaul (France) - Romans (General Aetius) and Franks (Merovich) defeat the Huns (Attila).

452 Huns invade Norther Italy. Attila meets with Pope Leo at Mantova and retreats before reaching Rome.

452 Saxons drive Picts back to Scotland.

453 Attila the Hun dies. Hun Empire breaks into civil war and Huns assimilate into other tribes. Catholic Church takes place of Western Roman Empire and reigns supreme for 600 years.

455 Emperor Valentinian III - assassinated. Vandals arrive at Ostia. Pope Leo meets with Geiseric before the attack on Rome and mitigates bloodshed.

455 Vandals,led by Geiseric - Sack of Rome.

456 Vandals raid Sardinia and Corsica.

460 Merovich dies. His son Childeric takes control of Franks

463 Romans and Franks defeat the Visigoths.

471 Childeric becomes King of the Franks.

476 End of the Western Roman Empire - Emperor Romulus August is deposed by Odoacer, first Barbarian ruler of Italy.
476 Constantinople - Eastern Roman Empire now called Byzantine Empire.

477 Geiseric dies at age 88 and Huneric must lead Vandals alone.

481 Childeric, King of the Franks dies. His son Clovis becomes King of the Franks. Clovis is ruthless and brutal.

486 Clovis, King of the Franks, defeats Romans at Soisons,Gaul. Conquers Northern Gaul. Franks no longer under Roman rule. .

488 Lombards (savage, primitive, violent, uncivilized, great warriors) originate in Scandinavia migrate to Pannonia (Austria and Hungary).

491 Britain - Saxons drive Roman Britons West into Wales.

493 Ostrogoths led by Theodoric conquer Italy.

496 Franks defeat the Alemanni. Franks kingdom expands. Clovis, King of the Franks, becomes a Christian. Franks become the first Catholic Barbarians.

500 Britain - Battle of Mountbatten - Legend of King Arthur originated here.

500 Britons drive Saxons east. Britons remain in Wales (Saxon word for stranger.

Barbarian Invasions of Western Europe 500 - 600

506 Clovis, Franks Chieftain defeats the Visigoths led by King Allaric. Drives them towards Hispania (Spain and Portugal).

508 Clovis, King of the Franks, becomes Honorary Consul of Roman Empire. Clovis unites Gaul and becomes leader of all the Frankish tribes. Paris becomes the capital of the new nation, Francia.

511 Clovis, King of the Franks,dies. His 4 sons divide the Kingdom. Franks become the dominant power in Europe. They are the most successful Barbarians.

527 Justinian becomes Eastern Roman Emperor and decides to reclaim Western Empire.
Roman Empire is now called the Byzantine Empire, it's capital is Constantinople.

533 Emperor Justinian sends General Belasarius and the Roman Army to take Carthage from Vandals.

534 Vandals defeated at Battle of Tricamari, near Carthage, by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian's Army.

538 Constantinople: Emperor Justinian oversees construction of Hagia Sofia. He sends Roman Army to reconquer Italy and North Africa.

Hagia Sofia

542 Constantinople - Bubonic Plague breaks out and spreads throughout Europe.

553 Byzantine Emperor Justinian sends Lombards to Ravenna to fight the Gepids.

533 Justinian Code of Law.

534 Justinian's General Belisarius destroys the Vandals and reconquers Southern Spain and North Africa.

536 Barbar Wars Begin. Belisarius conquers Rome - Ostrogoths surrender.

542 Plague ravages the Empire.

554 End of Barbar War.

565 Avars (from Asian steppes) move into Pannonia and ally with Lombards and destroy the Gepids. Albion - King of Lombards - marries Rosamund (daughter of Gepid King).

565 Constantinople - Emperor Justinian dies. Western Empire is relinquished.

567 Lombards invade Northern Italy - led by Albion. They are the last and fiercest of the Germanic Barbarian tribes to invade Italy.

568 Pope John III rules Italy. Lombards ally with Saxons and other Barbarians against the Catholic Church.

570 Pavia becomes the capital of the Lombard state. Pope asks for Byzantine Emperor's protection.

571 Visigoths conquer Spain.

572 Verona, Italy - Queen Rosamund has her husband Albion,King of the Lombards - killed.

592 Pope Gregory I negotiates with the Lombards.

597 Pope Gregory sends Augustine to Britain as a missionary.

Barbarian Invasions of Western Europe 600-800

600 Scots leave Ireland and settle in Scotland.

601 Britain - Augustine becomes the first Archbishop of Canterbury.

601 Britain - King Ethelbert is the first Anglo-Saxon King to convert to Christianity.

605 Peace Treaty between Byzantine Empire and the Lombards. Civil wars among the Lombards

670 Moors attack North Africa.

697 Moors destroy Carthage.

703 Aripert II emerges as King of the Lombards vs Liutprand (King of Bavarians.

711 Moors conquer Hispania (Portugal and Spain).

712 Liutprand is victorious and becomes King of Lombards. He promotes Catholicism and signs a treaty with Pope Gregory II.

727 Byzantine Church led by Emperor Leo declares icons are blasphemous, causes split with Roman Catholic Church led by Pope Gregory III.

727 Lombards attack Byzantine strongholds in Italy. More civil wars among Lombards.
731 Bede (Anglo-Saxon priest/scholar) writes a 5 volume history of England, Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation. He is the most educated man in Europe.

732 Moors invade France - Battle of Tours - Charles Martel defeats Moors and they retreat to Spain.

740 Ravenna, Italy - political conflict between Pope and Lombards. Liutprand is the supreme military authority in Italy.

744 Liutprand - King of the Lombards - dies

774 King Desiderius becomes King of Lombards. He tries to eliminate papacy. Pope Hadrian seeks help from Franks.

773 Pavia, Italy - Charlemagne the Frankish King leads a force against the Lombards. Within a year Lombards are destroyed. Birth of Modern Europe.

782 Franks led by Charlemagne conquer Saxons.

793 Vikings raids begin - Northern England - Monastery at Lindisfarne.

800 Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor and reigns for 46 years. Father of Modern Europe.

Crowning of Charlemagne by Henry-Leopold Levy

Later Middle Ages

865 Vikings conquer most of England and remain in power for 200 years.

878 Alfred the Great defeats the Vikings at the Battle of Edington.

September 1066 - Battle of Stamford Bridge. End of Viking Age in England.
October 1066 - Norman Conquest - William the Conqueror - Battle of Hastings